Fiduciary Duty What Board Members Should Know

Fiduciary Duty

 Whether they serve a co-op, condo, or HOA community, board members have a  responsibility to govern and make decisions on behalf of that community—a charge that is often referred to as the board's 'fiduciary duty.' Decisions  made on behalf of their fellow residents must be made in good faith, with the  best interests of the community always guiding those decisions. Violating this  duty can lead to legal consequences for boards and individual board members who  stray from this rule.  

 That’s why understanding the breadth and the limitations of fiduciary duty is  essential for both multifamily community board members and residents who don’t hold an office in their community. All residents must keep their elected  officials honest by paying attention to their actions, whether they are city  councilmen or condo board members. They must stay attentive to ensure that the  proper actions and methods are performed by board members. Failing to do so  could mean a special assessment is levied on everyone in the community, in  order to pay for unnecessary legal fees.  

 To pursue the best practices in governing their community, board members must  fully comprehend the concept of fiduciary duty, and allow that guiding  principle to inform all of their choices as elected members of the community.  They need to take the idea to heart, and keep it in the front of their mind,  always asking, “What’s in everybody’s best interest?”  

 Community Trust

 Defining fiduciary duty as it applies to board members means, in part, always  putting the overall interests of the community first, regardless of the issue  that the board is considering. But a selfless perspective for a community  politician is just part of the responsibility that every board member of a  co-op or condo assumes when they are appointed to their new position. The  particulars of that duty are what give some board members pause, sometimes  leading them to wrongheaded thinking.  

 “Fiduciary duty is their standard for being responsible for the association’s assets. It means having a loyalty to the association and a responsibility for  the community’s property and money,” says Marc Garrison, president of Private Holding Group, a full service real  estate management company based in Chicago. “Board members are supposed to look out for the association’s interests above all others, including their personal interests.”  

 This trust that residents put in their community’s volunteer leaders goes a bit further, though—wanting to do the right thing is not enough to really fulfill a board member’s fiduciary duty. One must do all of the work required to make the best choices  in the interests of the community. Sometimes that means reading documents that  are boring, or absorbing technical material or pages filled with numbers, or  information which must be explained to the board by an accountant, professional  engineer, property manager, or another expert consultant.  

 Being a board member means doing the hard jobs that are part of working in the  management side of the community. That means doing tasks like poring over  financial records, or perusing resumes and interviewing several candidates for  a position, or even firing an incompetent property manager or a lazy building  superintendent, despite the fact that nearly everyone in the building just  loves the employee.  

 “Fiduciary duty means it’s the responsibility of the board to consider things in a businesslike manner  and perform due diligence to make good decisions on behalf of the community as  a whole,” says Michael Daniels, chief operating officer of Skokie-based Cagan Management.  

 Some guidelines for this responsibility include not getting personal; using your  resources as a board member to make good decisions; and always deciding things  for the community with your head, not your heart, Daniels advises. Following  these guidelines will lead to success as a board member, and ignoring them can  end in failure.  

 “When board members deal with things on a personal level, like taking something  personal such as an eviction—a lot of times they make decisions that satisfy their need to get back at  people, rather than making those decisions in the interests of the community,” Daniels says. “Board members could be sued, which is why they carry insurance. It’s paid for by the condo association, but they do need directors-officer’s insurance.”  

 Using resources as a board member means knowing when to seek the professional  knowledge that is just a phone call or email away. Such advice should be sought  any time a board member is not certain he or she fully understands an issue  that could be voted on. Instead of half-guessing the correct answer to the  issue, board members should always seek the input of their consultants,  whenever it is relevant. Rather than thinking you know the right answer to an  arcane question about construction, plumbing, roofing, or accounting, allow  your accountant, property manager, engineer, super or another appropriate  professional take a look at the problem before you act.  

 As a board member you are never really alone. Although beholden to certain  standards of conduct, a good board member has sworn his or her loyalty to the  community. Simply put, board members are not self-employed in their elected  position; they work for the community.  

 “A board member acts as an agent of the community,” says Scott Seger, president of Forth Group Management in Chicago. “Property managers and management companies are all duty-bound to uphold the best  interests of the community.”  

 Neglectful Leadership

 When even one board member forgets this duty, problems can arise. Sometimes a  single-issue board member is elected, though he or she never really had the  interests of everyone in mind. Instead, this person had one goal to accomplish  upon election: for example, changing the bylaws in order to put in a roof deck.  

 “The challenge in associations is one-topic board members, who get on the board  for that reason, like a board member who got on the board to replace drafty  windows,” Garrison says.  

 After accomplishing their goal, such a board member’s interest might fade. Soon, the board member becomes apathetic or even selfish  in their decision-making, and that could lead to problems down the road.  

 Self-involved actions by a single board member can hurt everyone in the  community. But smart board members know they need to check their egos at the  door of the boardroom before a meeting. Making foolish or self-interested  decisions could haunt them and even cost them money, which is why the board is  insured by the community.  

 Boards and board members are regularly sued, and when they don’t do their jobs, they often lose those lawsuits. And when they do lose, all  resident lose, having to pay a premium in legal fees.  

 Even actions that some in the community wouldn’t find objectionable could put the board in jeopardy. Such a case could happen,  for example, when the board allows the manager to hire one of his relatives.  The manager has been with the building for decades and everyone likes him, so  why not hire his son or nephew or daughter, the board figures. Not being  lawyers, they don’t see the legal nuances of the decision.  

 “Illinois law says no relatives can be hired. It’s clear about avoiding conflict of interest,” Seger says.  

 With Chicago co-ops, business corporate law can take precedence in legal  matters. Depending upon the legal issue, when it comes to condos, the Illinois  Condominium Property Act could take precedence. And of course, any clearly  illegal behavior by a board member such as “fixing” bids for construction work on a building so a friend, associate or relative has the  lowest bid and wins the contract, could land that board member in jail.  

 Even much less egregious actions—or lack of action—by a board can be problematic. For example, if there is water leaking from the  building’s roof and the board has only had a temporary or inadequate fix done on the  leak, they haven’t fulfilled their fiduciary duty. They might be liable if one of the building’s residents decided to file suit over the matter. When that happens, both sides  can incur heavy legal fees.  

 Other issues might appear simple at first glance, like when the manager has  recommended that the façade be repaired, but a board member doesn’t want to spend the money on the repair. He doesn’t want to do a special assessment, which will be needed to pay for the façade repair. Thinking that he is being prudent, he fights the assessment and the  repair. Bad move.  

 In such scenarios, it’s a property manager’s responsibility to give the board member a reality check and remind him of his  duty. “It’s something we have to remind board members of in different situations,” Garrison said.  

 Righting the Ship

 If a board member blatantly neglects or disregards his fiduciary duty, his  neighbors in the community can take corrective actions. When the board member  in question holds an office on the board, his fellow directors could vote to  remove him from the office. If enough people in the community find fault with  the board member’s action, they could vote him out of office in the next election.  

 A recall vote also could be taken in order to remove the person from office. And  obviously, if the board member is doing something that is illegal, like fixing  bids, residents could call on the authorities to prosecute the wrongdoing. “Certainly, if somebody broke the law, that would become a criminal matter and be  reported to police,” Seger said.  

 On a board, usually one bad apple doesn’t make a big difference, Daniels says. “Sometimes a board member suggests the board invest in something that’s a commodity. When they’re dealing with other people’s money, they have to act prudently,” he says.  

 But getting the building into unnecessary lawsuits is as imprudent as they come,  experts warn. The major issue regarding fiduciary duty is when the board doesn’t do its job and is sued because of it, Garrison says. “The biggest problem in my view with fiduciary duty is board members who are  disinterested. It ultimately leads to a board being sued,” he says. “Board members who don’t take the job seriously run into problems.”  

 Conversely, boards that run efficiently, smoothly and conscientiously might not  be noticed doing their jobs so well by their peers, until they make an  unpopular decision such as a special assessment. But voting for such a fee,  while perhaps universally unpopular among residents, could be the only fiscally  responsible thing for the board to do. Making those unpopular decisions,  despite potentially raising the ire of residents, is what separates well-run  boards from all the rest.    

 Jonathan Barnes is a freelance writer and a regular contributor to The  Chicagoland Cooperator and other publications.  

Related Articles

Concept of multitasking. Girl with lot of hands, boss, businesswoman or entrepreneur. Active worker, leader, overworked person, strong woman. Cartoon flat vector illustration

June 13th is International Community Association Managers Day

Mark the Date (and Thank Your Manager!)

Elevated View Of Young Couple Lying In Bed Covering Their Ears With Pillow

Handling Sensitive Complaints in Condos & Co-ops

Sex, Smells, & Nuisances

Speaker at Business Conference and Presentation. Audience at the conference hall.

Property Manager Education & Training

Learning the Ropes



  • Our condo court needs a new well if it is put near the old one on common property it would cost us $20,000. The person who lives closest to where the well would be billed has hired a lawyer and someone on the board assured this homeowner that the well would be placed in a different area. The area that they selected will cost us $60,000 to have a well put in because it has to go under the courts pavement. So basically were talking about $40,000 more to move it somewhere else still on common property but not near the person who complains unit which should only be $20,000. So we're talking about a $40,000 increase,I feel that this is definitely not in the best interest and a lawsuit would be brewing from that result. We reside in west palm beach Florida can you give me any suggestions?
  • I’ll be to the point... I would not worry about court/lawyer fees if the Unit Owner sues... check with your Declarations and CCC’s typically the Unit Owner would bear all Association costs if the Association is the prevailing party in a suit against it from a unit owner. When the unit owner bought the unit they knew the well existed where it’s located. It doesn’t matter whether they agree with that statement or not, the well was in place prior to their move-in. It would be considered reasonable by the courts to repair/replace the at its current location unless some other extreme issue exists and a unit owners dislike is not considered an extreme circumstance. Regardless of “someone” on the Board telling the unit owner otherwise has no bearing as a Board member does not carry exclusive remedy in this situation. It would be required the entire Board vote to decide where to place this well and at what cost not an individual on the Board. While a unit owner may be dissatisfied it is in the Boards requirement to act in the best interest of its community both from a fiduciary and common sense approach. There will always be dissatisfaction no matter where this well is placed. There was likely sound reasoning and Village approval by code when this Well was originally installed so Courts would likely agree the continued location and maintenance would be considered reasonable and side with the associations efforts. If your Declarations read as many do the Unit Owner would then also bear the cost of the Association’s defense costs. The Devil is always in your Decs and CC&C’s.
  • Hello- I am on the board of a 20 unit condo in Chgo. We have had the usual challenges with property managers but clearly in my opinion need professional management. A new owner, now on the board due to a vacancy with only 1yr experience as a property owner and with very limited knowledge of how HOAs work, Ill Condo laws, etc., wants to pursue self-management because they feel all professional property managers take advantage of HOAs. Is there a way to fight this effort on the grounds that self-management by someone with no experience or expertise would be a violation of a board's fiduciary responsibility? Would a board member that proposes self-management have to provide evidence they were qualified and competent to do so?